This chapter focuses on the basics, the beginning level. The most basic thing to master is the ability to find the V chord (or pivot chord) of the new key, for it will propel us securely into the new key. Any kind of V chord may be useable: V, Vsus, four over five, and Vsus9 is particularly good as it smooths the transition more than a dominant seventh.
We’ll work on mastering several kinds of V chords, and concentrate on modulations up a 1/2 and whole step. Examples, exercises for practicing, assignments.
Different kinds of outros: (1) deceptive cadence; (2) iv-I; (3) rhythmic fade out; (4) walking down to I. Turnarounds: various versions (simple triads to complex extensions) of vi-ii-V-I. Loops: VII-IV-I (a favorite in African American churches).
Different ways to improvise/write music introductions: groove on the tonic, arpeggiate the V chord; use cycle of fifths; walk up to the tonic; pull out a harmonic progression already embedded in the piece & use it to build an introduction; capture/use a melodic motive already in the piece.
Various techniques for writing/improvising backing vocals: double the melody in women & men parts (called “bookends”), use close position, employ 3rd and 6ths, (and more modern) employ 4th and 5ths, punctuate the texture with vocal spikes/hits. In comtemporary stylings, the phrases are often shorter with quicker cutoffs, and often little or not vibrato. Included: a check list for backing singers.